PWC Recruitment: Critical Reasoning - Everything You Should Know About Everything including Music, celebrities, and your mentors

Thursday, February 20, 2020

PWC Recruitment: Critical Reasoning

Q16 In Los Angeles, a political candidate who buys saturation radio advertising will get maximum name recognition. 

The statement above logically conveys which of the following? 

A. Radio advertising is the most important factor in political campaigns in Los Angeles. 

B. Maximum name recognition in Los Angeles will help a candidate to win a 

higher percentage of votes cast in the city. 

C. Saturation radio advertising reaches every demographically distinct sector of 

the voting population of Los Angeles. 

D. For maximum name recognition a candidate need not spend on media 

channels other than radio advertising.

E. A candidate's record of achievement in the Los Angeles area will do little to
affect his or her name recognition there. 

An L.A. political candidate who buys saturation radio advertising will get 
maximum name recognition. In other words, such advertising is sufficient for 
maximum name recognition. If so, then it must be true that, as (D) says, a candidate can get such recognition without spending on other forms of media. 

Q17 The rate of violent crime in this state is up 30 percent from last year. The fault lies entirely in our court system: Recently our judges' sentences have been so lenient that criminals can now do almost anything without fear of a long prison term. 

The argument above would be weakened if it were true that

A. 85 percent of the other states in the nation have lower crime rates than does this state.

B. White collar crime in this state has also increased by over 25 percent in the 
last year. 

C. 35 percent of the police in this state have been laid off in the last year due to budget cuts. 

D. Polls show that 65 percent of the population in this state opposes capital punishment. 

E. The state has hired 25 new judges in the last year to compensate for deaths and retirements.

C is the right option

If we can show that something besides the court system may explain the increase in crime we would weaken the argument. The author assumes that there is no other cause. Tackle the choices, looking for another cause besides the allegedly lenient court sentences. 

(A) Does not compare one state to another. The argument's scope is the crime rate

increase in this particular state only. In (B), the fact that white collar crime is also on the rise strengthens rather than weakens the argument. (C) presents an alternative explanation for the increase in crime (reduction in police). As for (D), what if 65 percent of people in the state oppose capital punishment? This provides little insight into why crime has gone up since last year. (E) tells us that numerous judges have been replaced in the last year. It is possible that the new judges are more lenient, but this would only strengthen the author's argument. 


Q18 The increase in the number of newspaper articles exposed as fabrications serves to bolster the contention that publishers are more interested in boosting circulation than in printing the truth. Even minor publications have staffs to check such obvious fraud. 

The argument above assumes that 

A. Newspaper stories exposed as fabrications are a recent phenomenon. 

B. Everything a newspaper prints must be factually verifiable. 

C. Fact checking is more comprehensive for minor publications than for major 

ones. 

D. Only recently have newspapers admitted to publishing intentionally fraudulent 

stories.

E. The publishers of newspapers are the people who decide what to print in their newspapers. 

Evidence: more newspaper articles exposed as fabrications. 

Conclusion: Publishers want to increase circulation, not print the truth. 

This conclusion makes sense only if we assume (E), that the publishers are the ones

who decide what to print. If (E) weren't true and this decision was up to someone 

other than the publisher, the argument would fall apart. 

Q19 Time and again it has been shown that students who attend colleges with low faculty/student ratios get the most well-rounded education. As a result, when my children are ready to attend college, I'll be sure they attend a school with a very small student population. 

Which of the following, if true, identifies the greatest flaw in the reasoning above? 

A. A low faculty/student ratio is the effect of a well-rounded education, not its 

source.

B. Intelligence should be considered the result of childhood environment, not 

advanced education.

C. A very small student population does not by itself, ensure a low 

faculty/student ratio. 

D. Parental desires and preferences rarely determine a child's choice of a college

or university. 

E. Students must take advantage of the low faculty/student ratio by intentionally choosing small classes. 

The evidence says that students who attend colleges with low faculty/student ratios get well-rounded educations, but the conclusion is that the author will send his kids to colleges with small student populations. Since colleges can have the second without necessarily having the first, (C) is correct.




Q20 All German philosophers, except for Marx, are idealists. 

From which of the following can the statement above be most properly inferred? 

A. Except for Marx, if someone is an idealist philosopher, then he or she is
German. 

B. Marx is the only non-German philosopher who is an idealist. 

C. If a German is an idealist, then he or she is a philosopher, as long as he or 

she is not Marx.

D. Marx is not an idealist German philosopher.

E. Aside from the philosopher Marx, if someone is a German philosopher, then
he or she is an idealist. 

The question stem asks you to pick the choice from which the statement can be 
derived, and that's (E). If, as (E) says, anyone who is German is an idealist except for Marx, then all Germans except for Marx are idealists. That being the case, it would certainly be true that, as the stimulus says, with the exception of Marx, all German philosopher—being a subset of all Germans—are idealists. While this may  sound absurd, we're concerned with strict logic here, not content


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